Abigail Thernstrom was the vice-chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights from 2001 to 2013, and is currently an adjunct scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. She was a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, a member of the Massachusetts state Board of Education, and a member of the board of advisors of the U.S. Election Assistance Commission. Thernstrom is the author of Voting Rights—and Wrongs: The Elusive Quest for Racially Fair Elections (AEI Press, June 2009). She is the co-author, with her husband, of No Excuses: Closing the Racial Gap in Learning (Simon & Schuster, October 2003), named by the American School Board Journal as one of the best books of 2003. They also collaborated on America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible (Simon & Schuster), which the New York Times Book Review, in its annual end-of-the-year issue, named as one of the notable books of 1997. Thernstrom's 1987 work, Whose Votes Count? Affirmative Action and Minority Voting Rights (Harvard University Press) won four awards, including the American Bar Association's Certificate of Merit anad the best policy studies book of that year by the Policy Studies Organization (an affiliate of the American Political Science Association). She frequently appears on the most popular news shows and in print in through a variety of journals, newspapers, and blogs. Ms. Thernstrom received her Ph.D. in 1975 from the Department of Government, Harvard University.